CONDENSED FIQH OF TAHARA

TAHARAH / PURIFICATION

Lexically, the word tahárah means cleaning and being free from impurity. As a technical term, it means lifting spiritual impurity and removing physical impurity.

Water and Its Various Categories

All water that falls from the sky or comes from the earth is pure, as Allah SWT has said:

 “We send down purifying water from the sky” (Qur’an 25: 48)

Also, the Prophet ﷺsaid about the water in the ocean, “Its water is and its (animals that have died) are permissible (to eat).” Furthermore, the Prophet ﷺ also said about well water, “Verily, water is pure and nothing makes it impure.”

Thus, it remains in a state of purity, even if someone pure mixes with it, as long as it still considered water The principle ruling concerning any kind of matter is that of permissibility and purity (That is, they are to be considered permissible and pure unless proven otherwise). If someone, therefore, claims that an object is impure, then the burden of proof is upon him to bring forth some evidence for the impurity of that object.

If he does, his conclusion will be followed. If he is not able to bring forth such proof or if he does not present an acceptable proof, then our judgment will be according to the original principle and it being free of any impurity. Since declaring something to be impure is an obligation that concerns all people, it is not permissible to make such a declaration unless a proof has been established for it.

 

Disbelievers Pots and Clothes

Pots could be made of iron, wood, leather or the like. The original ruling is the permissibility of using such pots. That is to say, it is permissible to use every pure pot, except two types:

  • Pots made of gold or silver, and the pots having anything related to gold or silver, such as being inlaid or plated with gold or silver.
  • The hides of dead animals: It is prohibited to use them unless they are tanned. Yet, scholars differ regarding whether it is permissible to use them after tanning or not. The sound opinion, which is maintained by the majority of scholars, is that it is permissible to use the hides of dead animals after tanning, due to the many sahih (authentic) hadiths’ indicating that.

This prohibition of using or keeping golden or silver objects applies to both males and females, as the addressee of this prohibition is generalized (the prohibition applies to both sexes). There is nothing specified for a certain sex in this concern, except for the permissibility for women to make use of both silver and gold for purposes of adornment for their husbands.

On the other hand, it is permissible to use the utensils of disbelievers unless one knows that they are impure. In this case, one can use them only after washing them.

Likewise, it is permissible to wear the clothes of the disbelievers and to use whatever is weaved or dyed by the disbelievers, for the Prophet ﷺand his Companions used to wear clothes weaved and dyed by disbelievers. And Allah, Exalted be He, knows best.

 

Things Ritual Impurity Prohibits Doing

Deeds Prohibited for One in a State of Minor or Major Ritual Impurity

 

1- Touching the Glorious Book of the Qur’an

It is prohibited for one in a state of (minor or major) ritual impurity to touch the Glorious Book of the Qur’an (It is the Arabic Mushaf with only Arabic letters) unless with something that prevents direct contact, for Allah, Exalted be He, says:

“None touch it except the purified…” (Quran: Al-Waqi’ah: 79)

 

2- Offering Prayer (neither Obligatory nor Supererogatory Prayers)

Scholars uniformly agree that it is impermissible for one in a state of minor or major ritual impurity to perform prayer at all, be it obligatory or supererogatory, provided one is able to purify oneself.

3- Performing Jawd/ Tawaf (Circumambulating the Ka’ bah)

It is impermissible for one in a state of minor or major ritual impurity to perform tawaf.

 

Deeds Prohibited for One in a State of Major Ritual Impurity in Particular

 

As for the deeds specifically prohibited for one in a state of major ritual impurity, they are as follows:

1- Reciting the Qur’an

One in a state of major ritual impurity is prohibited to recite the Quran.

2- Staying at a Mosque

It is prohibited for one in whatever state of major ritual impurity, be it janabah, menstruation or postnatal bleeding, to stay in a mosque. (Although there is an opinion that it is permissible to pass through)

 

THE CALL OF NATURE

  1. Cleaning one’s stool and urine exits after defecation or urination with stones or what may substitute for them (Toilet Paper etc.).
  2. Istinja: Cleaning one’s stool and urine exits after defecation or urination with water.

 

“… Within it are men who love to purify themselves; and Allah loves those who purify themselves” (Quran: At-Tawbah: 108)

 

There are Islamic etiquettes to be observed on entering the bathroom, while answering the call of nature, and on leaving it.

Upon entering the bathroom, it is desirable for a Muslim to stepp in with the left leg. When leaving, it is desirable to step out with the right leg.

This is because the right (hand or leg) is used for whatever is related to honor and beautification, whereas the left is used for whatever is related to removing impurities and the lik

When answering the call of nature both males and females should squat or sit on the seat to minimize splash back.

Therefore, one must purify oneself from urine, as negligence in this regard is one of the reasons for the torture in the grave. To illustrate, Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) said:

“Purify yourselves from urine for most of the punishment in the grave is because of it”

 

ACTS OF NATURAL DISPOSITION – FITRAH

The Prophet (PBUH) said:

 

“Siwak (tooth-stick) is a way of purifying the mouth and satisfying the Lord”

(Related by Imam Ahmad and other compilers of Hadith)

It is reported in the Two Sahihs* that Abi Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) said:

“Five (practices) are of the natural disposition: circumcision, istihdad (shaving the pubic area),’ cutting the moustache short, removing the hair of the armpits, and clipping the nails”

It is also stated as a marfu (traceable) hadith in the Two Sahihs that Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) said:

“Cut the moustaches short and leave the beard grow.”

 

WUDHU – ABLUTION

The Conditions of Ablution:

There are eight conditions of ablution:

1- Being a Muslim

2- Being mentally sound

3- Having discretion

4- Having the intention of performing ablution

5- Using pure water:

6- Using legally-obtained water:

7- Being preceded by istinja’ or istijmar (when necessary as previously mentioned).

8- Removing what may prevent water from reaching skin of the ablution organs:

 

The Obligatory Acts of Ablution:

There are six obligatory acts, related to the organs of ablution:

1-Washing the whole face:

2- Washing the forearms including the elbows:

3- Wiping over the whole head:

4- Washing the feet including the ankles:

5- Sequence:

6-Succession:

“O you who have believed, when you rise to [perform] prayer, wash your faces and your forearms to the elbows and wipe over your heads and wash your feet to the ankles…”

(Quran: Al-Ma’idah: 6)

The Acts of the Sunnah to Be Observed during Ablution

Whatever acts done in addition to the above-mentioned obligatory acts of ablution are deemed desirable; he who observes them will be rewarded and there will be no blame upon him who refrains from observing them.

1- Using siwak (tooth-stick) during ablution:

2- Starting ablution with washing the hands three times,

3- Starting with rinsing the mouth and the nose

4- Inserting one’s wet fingers into one’s (thick) beard,

5- Starting with the right organs before the left

6- Washing the face, hands and feet up to three times instead of once.

 

THE PRE-REQUISITES OF A VALID ABLUTION -WUDHU

(Only If necessary) clean one self after going to bathroom.

  1. Cleaning one’s stool and urine exits after defecation or urination with stones or what may substitute for them (Toilet Paper etc.).
  2. Istinja: Cleaning one’s stool and urine exits after defecation or urination with water.

 

WUDHU – ABLUTION

The Conditions of Ablution – WUDHU IS INVALID WITHOUT THESE CONDITIONS

There are eight conditions of ablution:

1- Being a Muslim

2- Being mentally sound

3- Having discretion

4- Having the intention of performing ablution

5- Using pure water:

6- Using legally-obtained water:

7- Being preceded by istinja’ or istijmar (when necessary as previously mentioned).

8- Removing what may prevent water from reaching skin of the ablution organs:

 

 

THE FARDH CONDITIONS OF -WUDHU

The Obligatory FARDH Acts of Ablution – FARD CONDITIONS WITHOUT WHICH WUDHU IS INVALID

There are six obligatory acts, related to the organs of ablution

1-Washing the whole face:

2- Washing the forearms including the elbows:

3- Wiping over the whole head:

4- Washing the feet including the ankles:

5- Sequence:

6-Succession:

“O you who have believed, when you rise to [perform] prayer, wash your faces and your forearms to the elbows and wipe over your heads and wash your feet to the ankles…”

(Quran: Al-Ma’idah: 6)

 

THE SUNNAHS OF -WUDHU

The Acts of the Sunnah – IF YOU DO THEM BIG REWARD IF NOT WUDHU STILL VALID

Whatever acts done in addition to the above-mentioned obligatory acts of ablution are deemed desirable; he who observes them will be rewarded and there will be no blame upon him who refrains from observing them.

1- Using siwak (tooth-stick) during ablution:

2- Starting ablution with washing the hands three times,

3- Starting with rinsing the mouth and the nose

4- Inserting one’s wet fingers into one’s (thick) beard,

5- Starting with the right organs before the left

6- Washing the face, hands and feet up to three times instead of once.

 

HOW TO PERFORM -WUDHU

The Way of Performing Ablution-STEPS TO A PERFECT WUDHU IN SHAA ALLAH

1- Intention: To intend performing ablution for the acts of worship for which ablution is required, such as prayer and the like

2- Tasmiyyah: To say “Bismillah”  (i.e. In the Name of Allah Ta’ala)

3- To wash the hands three times: Right hand first then the Left hand.

4- To rinse the mouth three times and then to rinse the nose three times: (by sniffing water in from the right hand and then blowing it out using the left hand)

5- To wash the face three times, from the upper part of the forehead (the beginning of the normal hairline) to the lower parts of the jaw lengthwise, and from one ear to the other widthwise (without washing the ears, as they are treated as part of the head, not the face, as previously mentioned). The beard, as well, must be washed at this time; if the hair of the beard is not thick, one has to wash it internally and externally. But if it is thick, it has to be washed from the outside, and it is desirable to insert wet fingers through it washing it internally, as mentioned above.

6- To wash the hands up to and including the elbows three times; each hand is to be washed from the upper parts of the fingers and nails to the beginning of the upper arm. Moreover, one has to remove whatever sticks to the hands or the fingernails (such as dough, mud or thick paint) before washing them, so as to allow water to reach such parts.

7- To wipe over the whole head only once, including the ears, with wet hands (provided the water used for wiping over them is fresh one, unlike that remaining from washing hands). The proper way of wiping over the head is to be done by putting one’s wet hands on the upper part of the forehead and let them pass backwards till they reach ones nape, then return them forwards to the starting point. After that, one is to insert ones two wet forefingers in the holes of the ears while wiping over their outer parts with ones two thumbs.

8- To wash the feet three times including the ankles. As for one whose hand or foot is amputated, such one is to wash what is left of the arm or the feet. To clarify, If the arm is amputated from the joint of the elbow, one is to wash the front part of the upper arm, and if the foot is amputated from ankles, one is to wash the tip of the (amputated) leg; Allah, Exalted be He, says: “So fear Allah as much as you are able…” (Quran: At-Taghabun: 16)

Similarly, the Prophet (PBUH) said:

“If I command you to do something, then do (of) it as much as you can.”

9- After finishing performing ablution, in accordance with the above stated form, one may raise one’s sight towards the heavens and invoke Allah with some of the invocations of the Prophet (PBUH) in this regard, such as saying:

 

“Subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdik ashhadu an la illaha illa ant astaghfiruka wa atoobu ilayk”

 ‘‘Exalted are You, O Allah, and all praise be to You. / testify that there is no deity but You. I ask You for forgiveness and turn to You in repentance.”

 

WIPING OVER THE KHUFFS:

Islam is a religion of easiness and simplicity, not difficulty and strictness; it decrees suitable rulings for each case, which ensure fulfilling legal purposes and duties with no difficulty.

This applies to the rulings on ablution decreed by Allah. To illustrate, sometimes there is something covering the organs washed during ablution which is hard to remove and maybe needed as a means of protection, either for the feet (such as khuffs (SOCKS OR SHOES- LEATHER OR NOT) and the like), or for the head (such as turbans and the like), or for protecting wounds or the like (such as splints, bandages, etc. It is deemed permissible for the one performing ablution to just wipe over such coverings instead of removing them and washing what is underneath. This is the easiness made by Allah, Glorified and Exalted be He, for His servants, relieving them from difficulty and strictness

The Conditions of Wiping over the Khuffs, the Socks, and the Like:

1- To be in a state of ritual purity (i.e. a state of ablution) upon wearing them, for it is stated in the Two Sahihs ’ and other books of Hadith that the Prophet ﷺ said to the one who wanted to help him (i.e. the Prophet) in taking his khuffs off to perform ablution:

“Leave them as I had put them after performing ablution.”

It is also narrated that Safwan Ibn ‘ Assi said:

“We are commanded (by the Prophet ) to wipe over the khuffs if we put them on while being in a state of ritual purity (i.e. after performing ablution).

Thus, it is quite obvious that the ruling is dependent on being in a state of ritual purity when putting the khuffs on, so if one is in a slate of ritual impurity when putting them on, it is impermissible for one to wipe over them.

2- The khuffs must be lawfully acquired, gotten, and made. To clarify, if they are taken by force, or made of silk (for men), it is impermissible to wipe over them during ablution.

In a word, a legal permission is not applied to what is already illegal.

3- The khuffs and their likes must completely cover the feet up to the ankles. One cannot wipe over them unless they are thick enough and covering the parts of the feet which are to be washed. Thus, if they are too short to cover the feet up to the ankles, or are not thick enough to conceal underneath, it is impermissible to wipe over them.

Since it is permissible to wipe over the khuffs, it is permissible to wipe over any foot coverings, such as socks made of wool or suchlike material, which are thick enough to cover underneath. That is due to the fact that the Prophet ﷺ wiped over his socks and his shoes while performing ablution.

The Areas to Be Wiped over:

Wiping is to be applied to the upper part of the khuffs or the socks. As for the turban, most of it should be wiped over, especially its folds. However, the splint has to be wholly wiped over.

The Way Wiping over the Khuffs is Performed:

Wiping over the khuffs (during ablution) is to be by passing ones wet fingers from ones toes towards ones leg. The right foot is to be wiped over with the right hand, and vice versa.

 

NULLIFIERS OF WUDHU

The Things which Nullify Ablution/Wudhu are of Two Types

1- Direct nulliflers: They are the matters that cause the nullification of ablution directly, such as urine, stool, and whatever comes out of the anus and the sexual organ.

2- Indirect nullifiers: They are the matters that cause nullification of ablution indirectly, or makes the validity of ablution suspicious. Such matters include unconsciousness or similar states like sleeping, fainting, insanity, etc

For more clarification, we can classify the things nullifying ablution as follows:

  • Whatever comes out of the stool and urine exits, such as stool, wind, urine, sperm, pre-seminal fluid, and unusual menstrual blood.

As regards to istihadah (vaginal bleeding outside of menstruation) it nullifies ablution according to the hadith reported by Fatimah Bint Abu Hubaysh mentioning that she was afflicted with istihadah, and when she asked the Prophet (PBUH) about its ruling, he ﷺ said to her:

“Perform ablution and then (you can) offer prayer, for it is (due only to) a vein.”

Likewise, breaking wind nullifies ablution according to the sahih (authentic) hadiths narrated in this regard:

“Allah will not accept the prayer of anyone of you if he passes urine, stool or breaks wind until he performs ablution.”

  • Among the things nullifying ablution is mental unconsciousness either due to insanity or due to sleeping, fainting and the like. Thus, the ablution of one in such a state is deemed null, as there is suspicion in this case that something has come out of ones body (such as a drop of urine, wind, or the like) while one is unaware. DOZING OFF for minutes or seconds while sitting down DOES NOT NULLIFY THE WUDHU.
  • Eating meat of camels, little or much, is also one of the things nullifying ablution, according to the explicit sahih (authentic) Hadith of Allah’s Messenger ﷺ in this regard.

 

There are some other issues on which scholars disagree whether they nullify ablution or not, such as touching one’s penis or touching a woman lustfully vice/versa, washing the body of a deceased person, and apostasy. The issue is still controversial and subject to analogical deduction (Qiyas), yet re-performing ablution in such cases so as to avoid that juristic disagreement will be better.

 

RITUAL BATHING – GHUSL

You have already been introduced to the rulings on ablution, which is a means of purification from minor ritual impurity (caused by passing wind, excrement or urine), and the things nullifying it. So, the focus is now given to highlighting the rulings on purification from major ritual impurity, be it janabah (after intercourse impurity), menstruation, or postnatal bleeding.

There are six cases in which performing a ritual bath is obligatory for a Muslim:

  1. Ejaculation by a man or a woman
  2. Inserting a man’s penis into a woman’s vulva, even if without ejaculation
  3. Embracing Islam; when a disbeliever embraces Islam,
  4. Death is the fourth case that necessitates ritual bathing
  5. Menstruation
  6. Postnatal bleeding

 

HOW IS IT PERFORMED

  • Having the intention to take a ritual bath
  • Beginning with tasmiyah/bismillah
  • Washing one’s hands thrice
  • Washing one’s genital
  • Performing full ablution
  • Washing one’s head; pouring water over the head thrice so that it thoroughly reaches one’s scalp
  • Pouring water over one’s whole body and rubbing it with ones hands, making sure that water reaches all parts of the body

The menstruating or the woman in a state of postnatal bleeding has to undo her hair braids or pigtails/plats when taking a ritual bath. However, a woman in a state of janabah does not have to undo her hair braids to have a ritual bath, as it does not affect the validity of her ritual bathing in this case. This is because janabah is a frequent state, and undoing hair braids every now and then might cause her difficulty. Still, it is obligatory for a woman in that state (of janabah) to make water reach her scalp.

“There is janabah under every single hair, so wash the hair well and cleanse the skin”

“Verify, Allah is Modest and He likes modesty and veiling, so when anyone of you takes a bath, he/she should screen him or herself (so as not to be seen by others)”

(Related by Abu Dawud and An-Nasai)

Purity is a serious issue, and being negligent regarding it is a grave legal mistake, for it is a condition of the correctness of prayer which is the pillar of Islam.

 

TAYAMMUM – DRY ABLUTION

Tayammum is a substitute for purification with water in case one is legally unable to use it.

Purification with tayammum also enables a Muslim to perform all the acts of worship that require ablution with water, such as prayer, iawdf (circumambulating the Ka’bah), reciting the Noble Quran, etc. This is because tayammum has been decreed by Allah as a legal substitute for purification with water. The Prophet ﷺ also said:

..And its clean earth has been made (by Allah) as a purifying means for us…”

1- Unavailability of water; when one finds no water, whether one is at home or on a journey; Allah, Exalted be He, says:

“… And do not find water, then seek clean earth …”

(Quran: Al-Ma’idah: 6)

2- Availability of water but insufficient; when the available water is enough only for drinking, cooking, and such necessities, and purification with water might cause it to run out when it is needed to quench the thirst of one, one’s family, people, animals, etc.

3- Probability of harm; when purification with water might cause harm due to an illness, or cause the delay of one’s recovery, or the like, for Allah, Exalted be He, says:

But if you are ill… then seek clean earth…”

(Quran: Al-Ma’idah: 6)

4- Inability to use water due to illness; when one is unable to use water due to an illness that prevents one from moving to get water and there is nobody to help him perform ablution, so one fears to miss performing prayer at its due time.

5- The fear of catching cold: when one fears the harm of catching cold if one purifies oneself with water, provided one is unable to heat it, for Allah, Exalted be He, says:

“…And do not kill yourselves [or one another]…”

(Quran: An-Nisa: 29)

How to Perform Tayammum

When performing tayammum, one strikes the earth with ones hands while parting one’s fingers. Then one wipes over one’s face with the palm of one’s hands, and wipes over the hands with the palms of one’s hands, provided both the face and the hands are wholly wiped over. It is permissible to strike the earth twice, wiping over the face after the first strike and over the hands after the other. However, the former way of performing tayammum is the one authentically narrated to have been observed by the Prophet ﷺ (PBUH).

Things Nullifying Tayammum:

  • Whatever minor ritual impurity nullifies ablution (such as stool, urine, wind, etc.) nullifies
  • Whatever major ritual impurity necessitates ritual bathing (such as janabah, menstruation, and postanal bleeding) nullifies The ruling here is that the substitute act (i.e. tayammum) takes the same rulings on the original act (i.e. ablution and ritual bathing).
  • When water is found (in case tayammum is performed because of lack of water)
  • When there is no longer a legal excuse such as illness and the like.

REMOVAL OF IMPURITY

As a Muslim is legally required to be pure from minor and major ritual impurities in order to perform prayer, he/she is also commanded to purify hers/his body, clothes and remove any spot of impurity. Allah Ta’ala says:

“And your clothing purify”

(Qur’an: Al-Muddaththir: 4)

Kinds of Impure Objects That Must be removed:

Impurity may be linked to the ground, the floor, or what is connected to them, such as walls, water basins, rocks, etc. In such a case, it is sufficient to remove such impurity by washing it only once, i.e. to pour water once until it covers the impure object, as the Prophet ﷺ ordered to pour a bucket of water over the urine of the Bedouin who had urinated in the mosque”

On the other hand, impurity may not be related to the ground, the floor, or what is connected to them, such as the impurity caused by dogs, swine, or what is related to them. In this case, the impure object must be washed seven times, one of them with earth, for the Prophet ﷺ said:

“When a dog licks a utensil belonging to anyone of you, let him wash it seven times, the first of them with earth.’’’

(Related by Muslim and other compilers of Hadith)

In general, things washed can be divided into three categories:

  1. Squeezable things such as clothes, so they must be wrung out after washing.
  2. Un-squeezable things such as leather and the like, so they have to be overturned -during washing.
  3. Things that can neither be wrung out nor overturned; such things have to be washed, scrubbed and then pressed with a heavy object until most of their water dries.

As for a pure material soiled with urine of an infant, it is sufficient to purify it with sprinkling water, not washing it, as stated in the hadith narrated on the authority of Umm Qays Bint Mihsan (may Allah be pleased with her). She narrated:

“I brought my baby son (who had not started eating ordinary food then) to Allahs Messenger ﷺ who took him and made him sil in his lap. The child urinated on the garment of the Prophet ﷺ so he ﷺ asked for water and sprinkled it over the soiled area without washing it.”

However, if the child is old enough to eat ordinary food, the ruling on his/her urine is regarded as that of grown-ups. In such cases, urine is to be removed by washing as in the case of other kinds of impurity.

There are three kinds of impure objects:

  • Major impure objects, such as those caused by dogs and the like
  • Minor impure objects, such as the urine of infants (who have not yet started eating ordinary food)
  • Moderate impure objects, which include all other impure objects.

The leftover of legally edible animals is pure and so is the leftover of cats, according to the hadith narrated on the authority of Abu Qatadah, who reported that the Prophet ﷺ said about cats:

“It (i.e. a cat) is not impure; it is one of those (male or female domestic animals) which go round among you.”

(Related by At-Tirmidhi, who deems it sahih (authentic), and other compilers of Hadith)

 

MENSTRUATION:

Allah, Exalted be He, says:

“And they ask you about menstruation. Say ‘It is harm* so keep away from wives during menstruation. And do not approach them until they are pure. And when they have purified themselves, then come to them from where Allah has ordained for you. Indeed, Allah loves those who are constantly repentant and loves those who purify themselves! ” (Qur’an: Al-Baqarah: 222)

Menstruation is the flow of a type of natural blood from the womb at specific times. This blood is habitually discharged every month for six or seven days, and the period can be more or less than that. In other words, a woman’s monthly period can be longer or shorter depending on the different nature of each woman as predetermined by Allah.

It is prohibited for a menstruating woman either to perform prayer or observe fasting, as the Prophet ﷺ said to Fatimah Bint Abu Hubaysh

“Give up prayer when your menstrual period begins”

Thus, the prayer and fasting of a menstruating woman are deemed invalid, as the Prophet (PBUH) has prohibited that,* and the Prophets prohibition means it is invalid to perform what he has prohibited. Therefore, a woman who performs such acts of worship in that state of impurity is considered to be disobedient to Allah and His Messenger (PBUH).

When the menstrual period is over, a woman has to make up for the missed days of lasting according to the juristic consensus, without making up for the prayers she has missed. ‘ A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said:

“When we menstruated during the life of Allah’s Messenger (PBUH), we used to be commanded (by Allah’s Messenger ) to make up for the missed days of fasting, but we were not ordered to make up for the missed prayers!”

(Related by AI-Bukhari and Muslim)

It is impermissible for the husband of a menstruating woman to divorce her before her menstrual period is over, as Allah says:

“O Prophet, when you [Muslims] divorce women, divorce them at [ the commencement of] their waiting period…”

(Quran: At-Talaq: 1)

That is, when they become pure (from menstruation, sexual intercourse, etc.). Also, the Prophet ﷺ ordered a man who had divorced his wife during her menstrual period to take her back and to divorce her (if he insisted) when her period was over.

To sum up, we can say:

  • A woman with a stable, regular menstrual period distinguishes istihadah according to her habit.
  • A woman with a distinguishable blood depends on her own judgment and her ability to distinguish between her menstruation and istihadah.
  • A woman that has neither (a regular period nor distinguishable blood) is to consider six or seven days a month and then take a ritual bath.

 

والله تعالى أعلم

وصلى اللهم وسلم وبارك على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه والتابعين

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

أخوك أبو ناصر

 

 

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